OLD TOWN OF LJUBUSKI
The Old Town of Ljubuski is located on the pointed top of the karst Buturovica hill chain at the east end of Ljubusko polje. The town is built on solid karst, 396 meters above the sea level. After the 1992-1995 war, the macadam road was constructed almost all the way to the bottom of the town.
The town has two parts. According to historical sources the first fort was built during the Middle Ages Bosnian state, by mid-15th century. It is built on the highest and most dominant point. During the Ottoman Empire rule it was enclosed with the walls on all sides. The entire defense system and layout of the fort is very well designed. Inside the walls are the remains of different buildings: the guard house, granaries, bakery, and 4 wells of which 3 can be identified. Following the arrival of Slavic and Croatian tribes in the 7th century, Ljubuski area became a part of the Croatian district Rastok, noted by Byzantine historian and emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century.
The fort, commonly believed to be built by herceg Stjepan, although it is older than him, was built at the top of Buturovica (349 meters) between 14th and 15th century. In addition to herceg Stjepan Vukcic Kosaca and his sons, other leading figures of the 15the century were the Radivojevics, the Jurjevics and the Vlatkovics. The first mention of Ljubuski appeared in transcripts of February 21, 1444 under the name of Lubussa. The city fell to the Turks somewhat earlier than 1477, when it turned into a border fortress with powerful garrison. The Turks reinforced and expanded the fortress, added the ramparts with embrasures and built the housing for the army. The Ljubuski fortress had a granary, bakery, a few water tanks (wells), prison, powder chamber, armory, accommodation for the fortress commander, and housing units for the army. In 1565, in Turkish documents it was recorded as "k'ala Lupuska" (Ljubuski fortress).
In the 17th century, the town had been redone by Dubrovnik workmen. After 1835, Ljubuski had lost its role as a defense town and strategic place and fell into a decline. The Middle Ages town consisted of the Hercegusa tower and enclosure in front of the tower. The Hercegusa tower is squared; its internal dimensions are 5.2 x 2.1m, and external are 9.7 x 5m. The thickness of the northwestern walls measures as much as 4.5 meters, and the lateral, eastern and southeastern walls are 2 meters thick. The Turkish part of the town was built around the Middle Ages fortress, which at the time was turned into town center, encircled by walls on all sides. A large lower enclosure with bastion is located in the north town. Southeast of the fortified town are the two domineering massive towers, facing the east. The embrasures were built on all defense walls. Many embrasures are preserved. The town is entered through earlier internal arched entrance. Two towers which served for defense and a well were built inside the northwestern town. Several rooms whose purpose is unknown were located next to partition wall.
The entire Old Town of Ljubuski is of irregular polygonal shape, with total area of 3,350 square meters. Pursuant to Decision on Proclamation of “Old Town of Ljubuski” in Ljubuski the BiH National Cultural Monument (BiH Official Gazette, 43/2003 of December 29, 2003), upon setting up a Committee for Protection of Old Town of Ljubuski by Ljubuski Municipal Council, and upon developing of Old Town of Ljubuski repair, preservation and restoration programs made by Vjekoslava Sankovic Simcic, PhD (Arch), and with financial support of the Federation Ministry of Culture and Sports headed by Minister Gavrilo Grahovac and his assistant Angela Petrovic, the reconstruction of the “Old Town of Ljubuski” began in April 2006.